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  1. Project MUSE - Referendums and Ethnic Conflict
  2. BBC News Navigation
  3. Minority ethnic attitudes and the 2016 EU referendum
  4. Referendums and Ethnic Conflict

This, however, implied that Arab residents of the city could be annexed to Kurdistan by a vote of its Kurdish residents in Kurdish-controlled territory. In Baghdad, Vice President and former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has led hard-edged rhetoric against the referendum, stating that military force might be needed against Barzani.

Maliki has frequently attacked the KDP sharply, framing the Kurds as part of a Turkish-backed effort to change borders and engage in ethnic cleansing. Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi has avoided threatening language but still rejected the referendum as unconstitutional. Perhaps recognizing the danger of such tensions, Barzani appeared to temper his stance in a September 16 speech in Dohuk to a gathering of residents from the heavily Arab Nineveh Plains. At this point escalatory rhetoric has reached a fever pitch; had Barzani stressed the exercise would draw no borders from the beginning, it would have lessened tensions.

Project MUSE - Referendums and Ethnic Conflict

Barzani is now at pains to stress that the vote is purely symbolic, but the harm is done. The aggressive rhetoric has taken on a life of its own, alarming ethnically mixed areas and heightening tensions between the central government and the KRG. Although a large-scale military conflict is unlikely, localized armed clashes are a possibility in multiple areas. Kirk H. Sowell is the publisher of the biweekly newsletter Inside Iraqi Politics. Follow him on Twitter UticaRisk. Follow the conversation— Sign up to receive email updates when comments are posted to this article.

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Kirk, all your arguments are false. All minorities in Kurdistan, either ethnic or religious are staunchly supporting Independent Kurdistan, which will be a country in which they will realize their aspirations.

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Bermazij Qalos, Kurdistan. This is the wesr wishful thinking. The referendum will lead to a state and there will be no ethnical problems. The kurdish people lived in peace with all the minorities. You will be disappointed. You are leaving the website for the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy and entering a website for another of Carnegie's global centers. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Nationalism and self-determination went hand in hand, and this was resolved through referendums.

Minority ethnic attitudes and the 2016 EU referendum

Carr, the British historian and theorist of international relations, observed correctly that self-determination and democracy went hand in hand. Accordingly, from the period between to , there have been 26 independence referendums, which mostly gained independence, with some achieving de facto independent status.

In , the Scottish and Catalan independence referendums were held, where the Scottish voted for better together or no to the independence camp won with Catalonia and Kurdistan independence referendum are not legally endorsed or agreed by the concerned government. But first let us have a brief look on independence referendum of Catalonia and Kurdistan before we make some comparable assessment on how this kind of controversial issue that also concerned Burma could be and should be applied beneficially.


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Facts crucial to understand the present situation are compiled from various media sources as below. As it is, the position between the Spanish government and Catalonia regional government has hardened with neither side backing down. For now it is hard to predict whether the referendum will take place or not.

By all available indications, an overwhelming yes vote for independence would be the outcome, even though the final outcome result would be made known within 72 hours. But the outright independence declaration would not take place immediately due to various factors. According to Rudaw Media Network, the election commission announced that voter turnout was Understandably the Iraqi government officially opposes the referendum, deeming it unconstitutional and therefore illegal.

The Iraqi parliament has voted to reject the referendum and the Supreme Court has issued an interim ruling to suspend the vote.


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    Referendums and Ethnic Conflict

    L'esprit de Dans son nouveau livre, The Referendum and Other Discussing "Brexit" in London. What does Britian owe Europe? What does Britain owe Europe? The event will take place in London on 10 March 7.